How to hire employees in Egypt

Struggling to navigate Egypt's complex hiring landscape? Uncertain about legal requirements and cultural nuances? Our comprehensive guide provides expert insights and strategies to streamline your hiring process, ensuring you attract top talent effortlessly.
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Egypt is a strategic choice for businesses seeking top-tier talent in a dynamic global landscape. Renowned for its historical prominence and cultural richness, Egypt offers a multifaceted talent pool proficient in various sectors, including information technology, engineering, and tourism.

With a burgeoning focus on innovation, Egypt is increasingly appealing for enterprises seeking expertise in software development, digital marketing, and telecommunications. The nation's workforce combines technical prowess and creative acumen, providing compelling opportunities for organizations in emerging markets.

Egypt's labor market offers cost-effective solutions, granting access to high-caliber talent at competitive rates. Coupled with its strategic geographic location and expanding infrastructure, Egypt emerges as a premier hub for businesses looking to establish or enhance their global footprint.

How to hire employees in Egypt

What you need to know before hiring employees in Egypt

Job market in Egypt

When considering how to effectively hire employees in Egypt, several key trends can guide your approach to recruitment and compensation:

  • Egypt's Global Ranking on Wellbeing and Inequality (GRWI) is 0.598, indicating its standing in relation to global wellbeing and inequality measures, which offers insights into the country's socio-economic landscape.
  • As of 2022, Egypt's youth unemployment rate decreased to 15.71%, marking a significant improvement and signaling opportunities within the labor market.
  • The distribution of employment in Egypt across economic sectors indicates a substantial presence in the services sector, with 51.09% of employees engaged in this domain in 2021. This suggests a growing emphasis on service-oriented industries, presenting avenues for talent acquisition and development.
  • In 2019, the average weekly wage for women in the public sector slightly surpassed that of men, with women earning nearly 1.65 thousand Egyptian pounds compared to men's 1.46 thousand Egyptian pounds. This trend highlights progress towards gender pay equality and underscores Egypt's commitment to fostering inclusive workplaces.
  • Egypt ranks among the top 50 countries for ICT infrastructure (ranking 45th), showcasing its proficiency in digital technologies and infrastructure development. Additionally, while urbanization ranks 107th globally, the country's ongoing urbanization efforts signify opportunities for talent acquisition and technological advancement in urban centers.

These insights underscore Egypt's evolving economic landscape and its readiness to accommodate modern workforce dynamics. With a diverse talent pool and a commitment to technological advancement, Egypt presents an attractive destination for companies seeking skilled professionals to meet the demands of the global job market.

Egypt Hiring Trends

  • Vibrant and Evolving Landscape: Egypt's hiring landscape in 2024 remains dynamic, providing ample opportunities for employers to connect with skilled professionals.
  • Recalibration in Job Postings: Despite a minor decrease in active job postings, the market is adjusting rather than declining, allowing for more targeted recruitment strategies.
  • Continued Growth and Demand: With 984 new jobs posted in January 2024, there's clear evidence of ongoing sector growth and a strong demand for talent.
  • Positive Trend in Job Closure: A significant trend towards the closure of job positions suggests companies are efficiently filling roles, streamlining operations, and optimizing their workforce.
  • Hub for Innovation: Egypt's commitment to enhancing its ICT and technological sectors makes it a central location for innovation and development, offering exciting opportunities for both employers and employees.
  • Adaptability and Agility in Recruitment: Employers in Egypt are advised to adopt flexible, innovative, and inclusive hiring practices to attract and retain top talent, emphasizing the importance of a positive workplace culture and opportunities for advancement.

How to hire employees from Egypt

1. Set up an entity in the country

Setting up a legal entity in Egypt presents a strategic opportunity for businesses seeking to establish a robust presence and facilitate long-term growth within the country's thriving market.

Choosing to establish a legal entity enables businesses to directly manage their operations, including employee management, and offers long-term advantages in terms of stability and legal compliance.

The process typically involves selecting an appropriate business structure, such as a Limited Liability Company (LLC) or Joint Stock Company, and registering with the relevant authorities, such as the General Authority for Investment and Free Zones (GAFI) or the Ministry of Investment and International Cooperation (MIIC). Obtaining a tax identification number, known as the Tax Card or Tax Registration Number (TRN), is also essential for compliance with Egyptian tax regulations.

However, navigating the process of setting up a legal entity in Egypt can be intricate and requires a comprehensive understanding of local regulations and business practices. It is essential to conduct thorough research, seek expert advice, and engage with local legal and financial professionals to ensure a smooth and successful establishment.

Additionally, efficient management of human resources and payroll is crucial for maintaining compliance with Egyptian labor laws and regulations. Employers must adhere to local employment requirements, including contracts, benefits, and workplace safety standards.

In summary, while establishing a legal entity in Egypt offers significant opportunities for business expansion and long-term success, it requires careful planning, adherence to regulations, and expert guidance to navigate the complexities of the process effectively.

2. Hire independent contractors

Engaging independent contractors in Egypt involves entering agreements with individuals or businesses for targeted tasks or projects, offering flexibility suited for short-term assignments or specific project requirements. However, accurately classifying workers is essential to avoid legal issues and potential penalties. It's important to note that contractors may not demonstrate the same level of commitment or loyalty as full-time employees, a factor to consider when adopting this hiring approach.

3. Partner with an EOR in the country

Partnering with an Employer of Record (EOR) service in Egypt, such as Gloroots, provides a convenient avenue for market entry, circumventing the complexities of establishing a legal entity. This strategy reduces liabilities and proves cost-effective. By collaborating with an EOR, businesses ensure compliance with Egyptian labor laws, tax regulations, and other legal requirements, thereby mitigating risks and maintaining a compliant business operation.

Compliance risk while hiring in Egypt

When hiring in Egypt, it's crucial to address compliance risks to ensure a smooth recruitment process. This includes accurately classifying workers, adhering to labor laws and tax regulations, and staying updated on legal changes. Misclassification or non-compliance can lead to penalties and operational disruptions, emphasizing the importance of careful adherence to regulations and seeking expert guidance when needed.

Key Aspects of Egyptian Labor Law

Working Hours:

In Egypt, the typical workweek comprises 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week.


Any hours worked beyond 48 hours per week qualify for overtime compensation. During regular hours, employees receive 135.00% of their regular salary rate, while nighttime work earns 170.00% of their regular rate. Additionally, working on non-regular days warrants double the daily wage, plus an extra day off the following week. However, working on days off requires prior mutual agreement.

Minimum Wage:

The current minimum wage for the private sector in Egypt stands at 3,500 EGP.

Payroll laws in Egypt

Payroll in Egypt follows a monthly cycle, with payments due by the 5th of the subsequent month.
There is no mandatory provision for 13th-month salary payments in Egypt.

Employment benefits in Egypt

Leave Policies in Egypt

1. Paid Time Off:

In Egypt, employees receive 21 working days of paid annual leave per year after six consecutive months of employment. After ten years of consecutive employment or for employees over 50 years of age, annual leave increases to 30 days. Any unused vacation days can be carried over to the following year.

2. Public Holidays:

There are 18 public holidays listed in Egypt.

3. Sick Days:

In Egypt, employees are entitled to sick leave covered by social security for up to 6 months. The employee must provide a medical certificate to confirm the sickness. For the first 90 days of sick leave, the employee receives 75% of their regular salary rate, increasing to 85% for the next 90 days.

4. Maternity Leave:

Female employees in Egypt, who have been employed for ten consecutive months, are entitled to 90 days of paid maternity leave. Maternity leave pay is 100% of salary, with 75% covered by Egyptian social security and the remaining 25% covered by the employer. It is common for the employer to cover the full 100% for the entire 3 months. Employees can take three periods of maternity leave during their total employment service. Upon returning to work, the woman is entitled to two thirty-minute nursing breaks or a combined one-hour nursing break each day for up to two years after the date of birth.

5. Paternity Leave:

There are no provisions in Egyptian law regarding paternity leave.

6. Parental Leave:

There are no provisions in Egyptian law regarding parental leave.

7. Other Leave:

Depending on the terms of the collective agreement/employment contract, employees in Egypt may be entitled to additional leave types, subject to approval by the employer and employee. This includes casual leave, where employees can take up to six days off per year without stating a reason. Employees can take a maximum of two days per leave, and casual leave counts as part of annual leave.

Public Health Insurance

Egypt's public health insurance system ensures that all Egyptian citizens and legal residents have access to comprehensive healthcare services. This system covers every employee in Egypt, irrespective of their employment status, providing a wide range of medical services including surgeries, hospitalizations, and medications, all at no expense to the individual.

Filing tax in Egypt

Income Tax:

In Egypt, income tax rates vary depending on the individual's income bracket. The tax rates range from 0% for net incomes up to 40,000 EGP annually to 25% for net incomes over 400,000 EGP annually. The tax rates progressively increase with higher income levels, with different brackets applying to varying income ranges. For a detailed breakdown of Egypt's income tax structure, including specific rates and brackets, visit our comprehensive guide.

Other Tax and Social Security Contributions:

In Egypt, both employers and employees are subject to various payroll contributions. Employers typically contribute 18.75% for social security, with an additional 1.00% towards the Emergency Relief (ER) Fund. For members of the Board of Directors, the contribution rate is 21%. This results in a total employer contribution of 19.75% of the employee's salary.

On the employee side, payroll contributions consist of 11.00% for social security. This brings the total employee contribution to 11.00% of their salary. For a complete overview of the tax and social security contributions in Egypt, please refer to our detailed guide.

Business culture in Egypt


  • Schedule appointments well in advance and confirm them a week before and again a day or two before the meeting.
  • Meetings usually start with the host offering coffee or tea, followed by light conversation about personal matters to build rapport.
  • Be prepared for meetings to run longer than planned, as rushing discussions is considered impolite.
  • Multiple visits may be necessary to accomplish tasks due to the relaxed pace of business.
  • Meetings are typically open-door, with interruptions common. Wait for interruptions to subside before redirecting the conversation.
  • High-ranking government officials may follow Western-style practices in private meetings.
  • Written contracts may not signify finalization, as negotiations often continue throughout the relationship.
  • Respect hierarchy, with the most senior person usually serving as the spokesperson.
  • Egyptians are skilled negotiators who value thorough research and documentation to support claims.
  • Decision-making can be time-consuming, especially in government matters.


  • Networking is crucial, often outweighing expertise, with nepotism viewed positively.
  • Flexibility in interpreting rules and regulations is common to overcome business constraints.
  •  Building business relationships in Egypt requires considerable time investment.
  •  Age and experience hold weight, particularly in government circles.
  •  Conservative, high-quality attire makes a favorable impression.
  •  Accept offers of coffee or tea as a sign of hospitality.
  •  Egyptians tend to avoid confrontation and may not directly refuse proposals.

Top sectors to hire from in Egypt

Agricultural Sector

Employing around 19.83% of the workforce, the agricultural sector plays a significant role in Egypt's employment landscape, providing jobs in farming, forestry, and fishing.

Industry Sector

With a noteworthy 29.08% share of the workforce, the industry sector is a key contributor to employment in Egypt, encompassing manufacturing, construction, and mining activities.

Service Sector

Dominating the employment landscape with a commanding 51.09% share, the service sector is a primary area for job opportunities in Egypt, covering a diverse range of services including retail, trade, and public administration.

Top cities to hire from Egypt


As a burgeoning tech hub in the Middle East, Cairo offers a burgeoning pool of tech talent, including software engineers and IT specialists. Its growing startup ecosystem, along with government initiatives and access to venture capital, positions it as an attractive destination for accessing innovative talent and tapping into the flourishing Middle Eastern tech scene.


Alexandria is swiftly gaining recognition as a prominent tech hub in Egypt, renowned for its dynamic workforce and appealing incentives for tech enterprises, such as tax incentives and financial grants. The city hosts prestigious universities and tech institutes, nurturing a talented pool of tech professionals who stay abreast of the latest technological advancements.

Hire in Egypt compliantly with Gloroots

In Egypt, Gloroots serves as an Employer of Record (EOR), providing an efficient solution to these complexities. Our EOR platform expedites the onboarding process for candidates, ensuring seamless operational commencement while maintaining compliance with both local regulations and international standards. Tailored to meet the needs of businesses of all scales, our platform simplifies payroll management, benefits administration, and tax compliance, eliminating the necessity for establishing a local entity. This enables companies to concentrate on establishing a remote workforce in Egypt effectively. For further details on how Gloroots can assist you with your Egyptian hiring requirements, please don't hesitate to get in touch with us.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How much does it cost to hire an employee in Egypt?

In Egypt, hiring expenses typically include the employee's basic salary, benefits, contributions to social insurance, and any applicable taxes. Additionally, employers may incur costs related to recruitment advertising, signing bonuses, and onboarding procedures. It's important to note that these hiring costs can vary based on factors such as the employee's skill set, experience level, and the specific location of the job within Egypt. Understanding these variations is essential for effective budgeting and financial planning in the Egyptian job market.

2. Where can I hire employees from Egypt?

Major cities like Cairo, Alexandria, Giza, and Shubra El Kheima are prominent hubs for sourcing talent in Egypt, particularly for roles in technology, finance, and engineering. Employers often engage in campus recruitment, attend job fairs, and utilize online job portals to attract potential candidates. Platforms such as Wuzzuf, Bayt, and LinkedIn are widely utilized by companies to advertise job openings and connect with qualified professionals. These cities, known for their diverse workforce and economic opportunities, serve as ideal locations for businesses seeking to build a skilled and diverse team in Egypt.

3. How to find talent in Egypt?

Finding talent in Egypt's dynamic job market involves utilizing various resources and strategies. Here are some effective ways to source skilled professionals in Egypt:

  • LinkedIn: A widely used platform for professional networking and job searches, LinkedIn offers tools for posting job openings, searching for candidates, and connecting with industry professionals in Egypt.
  •  Wuzzuf: As one of Egypt's leading job portals, Wuzzuf hosts a large database of job seekers and offers features such as resume-building tools and job matching services for employers.
  •  Bayt: Another popular job platform in Egypt, Bayt provides job listings, resume services, and recruitment solutions tailored to employers' needs.
  • Indeed: A global job search engine, Indeed's Egypt-specific site aggregates job listings from various sources, simplifying the hiring process for employers and job seekers alike.
  •  Networking Events: Participating in networking events, industry conferences, and professional associations can help employers connect with potential candidates and build relationships within Egypt's job market.
  •  University Collaborations: Collaborating with universities for campus recruitment programs and internships can provide access to talented graduates and students seeking employment opportunities.
  • Recruitment Agencies: Partnering with local recruitment agencies can assist employers in identifying and hiring qualified candidates, especially for specialized roles.

4. What is the minimum salary for employees in Egypt?

The national minimum wage in Egypt is 2,000 Egyptian pounds.

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